"زلزال" الشائعات غير العلمية

"زلزال" الشائعات غير العلمية

عادة ما تنتشر الخرافات والمعلومات غير العلمية أثناء الكوارث الطبيعية، وإذا كان أثرها في السابق محدودا، فإنه مع انتشار وسائل التواصل الاجتماعي، باتت تؤثر بشكل مباشر على ملايين الناس الذين تدفعهم حالة الخوف إلى تصديق كل شيء. كيف كان تعامل وسائل الإعلام مع المعلومات العلمية أثناء زلزال تركيا وسوريا؟

 

1- في تغريدة نشرها على تويتر قبل الزلزال الذي ضرب تركيا وسوريا، توقع فرانك هوغربيتس، الذي يقدم نفسه على أنه متخصص في "هندسة الكواكب" وقوع زلزال "بقوة 7.5 درجة على سلم ريشتر" في المنطقة رغم أن تنبؤاته لم تكن مبنية على أي أساس علمي. 
2- شوهدت تغريدة فرانك أكثر من 50 مليون مرة، ونشرت على نطاق واسع، لكن الذي منح الشرعية لهذه التدوينة هي بعض وسائل الإعلام الكبرى العربية وغير العربية التي استضافته لتفسير نظريته المؤسسة على حركة الكواكب "وهندسة النظام الشمسي"، وهي النظرية التي ينفيها علماء الجيولوجيا. 
3- تقع تركيا في منطقة زلزالية نشطة، تتماس فيها الصفائح التكتونية، أي أنها معرضة للزلازل في كل مرة، لكن لم يطور العلم لحدود اليوم أي آلية أو أداة دقيقة للتنبؤ بوقوع الزلازل أو حجمها، إنما بعض المؤشرات التي يمكن أن ترصد النشاط الزلزالي.
4- بسهولة، كان بإمكان وسائل الإعلام التي استضافت فرانك التثبت أنه أخفق في ديسمبر 2018، فبراير 2019 وفي تواريخ مختلفة من 2020 في نشر بيانات صحيحة "متنبئة بالزلازل"، بل وهوجم من طرف علماء بسبب ترويجه لمعلومات غير علمية "تثير الرعب في الناس".
5- على هذا النحو، عاد فرانك ليتوقع زلزالا كبيرا سيضرب بلدانا عديدة في الشرق الأوسط، مع ملاحظة أن تغريداته تنتشر بشكل سريع بين المتابعين المأخوذين بهول الكارثة وحجم الموتى والدمار الذي خلفه الزلزال.
6- كما حدث أثناء انتشار كورونا، فإن نشر المعلومات غير العلمية يؤدي إلى حصد أرواح بشرية مثلما وقع عندما تناول البعض الكحول معتقدين أنها تقي من الفيروس. ويمكن الاستشهاد أيضا باضطرار الآلاف من الإندونيسيين للبقاء في الملاجئ لأكثر من شهر بعد انتشار شائعات عن حدوث تسونامي وشيك.
7- لا توجد معطيات علمية دقيقة لحدود الآن عن تأثير نشر المعلومات غير العلمية عن الزلزال على الناس، لكن ملاحظة بسيطة على مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي يمكن أن تكون مؤشرا دالا على التأثير في حياة الناس وحركة الهجرة وعرقلة مسار المساعدات التي يجب أن تصل إلى الضحايا في أقرب فرصة.
8- كما أن مثل هذه المعلومات تخلف حالة من الرعب والخوف لدى الناس وقد تفضي إلى حدوث فوضى واضطراب في سير العمل واستجابة الدول والمنظمات للكوارث. 
9- من الممارسات الفضلى التي توصي بها المواثيق الصحفية المرتبطة بالكوارث والأزمات، هي التحقق من الأخبار العلمية واحترام قاعدة هرمية المصادر، وعدم اللجوء إلى التهويل والانجرار نحو سياق عام مطبوع بالخوف. من هنا تأتي المسؤولية الاجتماعية للصحفيين في حماية المجتمع. 

 

 

يكنكم قراءة دليل الصحافة العلمية لمعهد الجزيرة للإعلام

More Articles

Press Freedom in Multiple EU Countries on the "Verge of Collapse" Reports Show

The European Civil Liberties Union's Media Freedom 2024 report highlights a decline in press freedom and media pluralism in several EU countries, with calls for comprehensive reforms. The report also points out biases in Western media coverage of the Israeli offensive in Gaza, including restrictions on certain terms and unbalanced reporting. It raises concerns about diminishing media pluralism, journalist prosecution and surveillance, and declining public trust in the media.

A picture of the Al Jazeera Media Institute's logo, on a white background.
Al Jazeera Journalism Review Published on: 13 May, 2024
Elections and Misinformation – India Case Study

Realities are hidden behind memes and political satire in the battle for truth in the digital age. Explore how misinformation is influencing political decisions and impacting first-time voters, especially in India's 2024 elections, and how journalists fact-check and address fake news, revealing the true impact of misinformation and AI-generated content.

Safina
Safina Nabi Published on: 30 Apr, 2024
Amid Increasing Pressure, Journalists in India Practice More Self-Censorship

In a country where nearly 970 million people are participating in a crucial general election, the state of journalism in India is under scrutiny. Journalists face harassment, self-censorship, and attacks, especially under the current Modi-led government. Mainstream media also practices self-censorship to avoid repercussions. The future of journalism in India appears uncertain, but hope lies in the resilience of independent media outlets.

Hanan Zaffa
Hanan Zaffar, Jyoti Thakur Published on: 25 Apr, 2024
Journalism in chains in Cameroon

Investigative journalists in Cameroon sometimes use treacherous means to navigate the numerous challenges that hamper the practice of their profession: the absence of the Freedom of Information Act, the criminalisation of press offenses, and the scare of the overly-broad anti-terrorism law.

Nalova Akua
Nalova Akua Published on: 12 Apr, 2024
The Perils of Journalism and the Rise of Citizen Media in Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia's media landscape is grim, with low rankings for internet and press freedom across the region. While citizen journalism has risen to fill the gaps, journalists - both professional and citizen - face significant risks due to government crackdowns and the collusion between tech companies and authorities to enable censorship and surveillance.

AJR Contributor Published on: 6 Apr, 2024
Orientalism, Imperialism and The Western Coverage of Palestine

Western mainstream media biases and defence of the Israeli narrative are connected to orientalism, racism, and imperialism, serving the interests of Western ruling political and economic elites. However, it is being challenged by global movements aiming to shed light on the realities of the conflict and express solidarity with the Palestinian population.

Joseph Daher
Joseph Daher Published on: 1 Apr, 2024
Ethical Dilemmas of Photo Editing in Media: Lessons from Kate Middleton’s Photo Controversy

Photoshop—an intelligent digital tool celebrated for enhancing the visual appearance of photographs—is a double-edged sword. While it has the power to transform and refine images, it also skillfully blurs the line between reality and fiction, challenging the legitimacy of journalistic integrity and the credibility of news media.

Anam Hussain
Anam Hussain Published on: 26 Mar, 2024
Silenced Voices: The Battle for Free Expression Amid India’s Farmer’s Protest

The Indian government's use of legal mechanisms to suppress dissenting voices and news reports raises questions about transparency and freedom of expression. The challenges faced by independent media in India indicate a broader narrative of controlling the narrative and stifling dissenting voices.

Suvrat Arora
Suvrat Arora Published on: 17 Mar, 2024
Targeting Truth: Assault on Female Journalists in Gaza

For female journalists in Palestine, celebrating international women's rights this year must take a backseat, as they continue facing the harsh realities of conflict. March 8th will carry little celebration for them, as they grapple with the severe risks of violence, mass displacement, and the vulnerability of abandonment amidst an ongoing humanitarian crisis. Their focus remains on bearing witness to human suffering and sharing stories of resilience from the frontlines, despite the personal dangers involved in their work.

Fatima Bashir
Fatima Bashir Published on: 14 Mar, 2024
A Woman's Journey Reporting on Pakistan's Thrilling Cholistan Desert Jeep Rally

A Woman's Voice in the Desert: Navigating the Spotlight

Anam Hussain
Anam Hussain Published on: 8 Mar, 2024
Breaking Barriers: The Rise of Citizen Journalists in India's Fight for Media Inclusion

Grassroots journalists from marginalized communities in India, including Dalits and Muslims, are challenging mainstream media narratives and bringing attention to underreported issues through digital outlets like The Mooknayak.

Hanan Zaffa
Hanan Zaffar, Jyoti Thakur Published on: 3 Mar, 2024
Silenced Voices and Digital Resilience: The Case of Quds Network

Unrecognized journalists in conflict zones face serious risks to their safety and lack of support. The Quds Network, a Palestinian media outlet, has been targeted and censored, but they continue to report on the ground in Gaza. Recognition and support for independent journalists are crucial.

Yousef Abu Watfe يوسف أبو وطفة
Yousef Abu Watfeh Published on: 21 Feb, 2024
Artificial Intelligence's Potentials and Challenges in the African Media Landscape

How has the proliferation of Artificial Intelligence impacted newsroom operations, job security and regulation in the African media landscape? And how are journalists in Africa adapting to these changes?

Derick M
Derick Matsengarwodzi Published on: 18 Feb, 2024
Media Blackout on Imran Khan and PTI: Analysing Pakistan's Election Press Restrictions

Implications and response to media censorship and the deliberate absence of coverage for the popular former Prime Minister, Imran Khan, and his party, Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI), in the media during the 2024 elections in Pakistan.

Anam Hussain
Anam Hussain Published on: 14 Feb, 2024
Digital Battlegrounds: The New Broadcasting Bill and Independent Journalism in India

New legislation in India threatens the freedom of independent journalism. The draft Broadcasting Services (Regulation) Bill, 2023 grants the government extensive power to regulate and censor content, potentially suppressing news critical of government policies.

Safina
Safina Nabi Published on: 11 Feb, 2024
Pegasus Spyware: A Grave Threat to Journalists in Southeast Asia

The widespread deployment of spyware such as Pegasus in Southeast Asia, used by governments to target opposition leaders, activists, and journalists, presents significant challenges in countering digital surveillance. This is due to its clandestine operations and the political intricacies involved. The situation underscores the urgent need for international cooperation and heightened public awareness to address these human rights infringements.

AJR Contributor Published on: 5 Feb, 2024
Cameroonian Media Martyrs: The Intersection of Journalism and Activism

Experts and journalists in Cameroon disagree on the relationship between journalism and activism: some say journalism is activism; others think they are worlds apart, while another category says a “very thin” line separate both

Nalova Akua
Nalova Akua Published on: 28 Jan, 2024
Silent Suffering: The Impact of Sexual Harassment on African Newsrooms

Sexual harassment within newsrooms and the broader journalistic ecosystem is affecting the quality and integrity of journalistic work, ultimately impacting the organisation’s integrity and revenue.

Derick M
Derick Matsengarwodzi Published on: 23 Jan, 2024
In-Depth Analysis Reveals Distortion in U.S. Media's Coverage of the Gaza Conflict

A new quantitative analysis by The Intercept reveals the extent of distorted coverage in American media of the Israeli war on Gaza.

A picture of the Al Jazeera Media Institute's logo, on a white background.
Al Jazeera Journalism Review Published on: 14 Jan, 2024
In the Courtroom and Beyond: Covering South Africa's Historic Legal Case Against Israel at The Hague

As South Africa takes on Israel at the International Court of Justice, the role of journalists in covering this landmark case becomes more crucial than ever. Their insights and reporting bring the complexities of international law to a global audience.

Hala Ahed
Hala Ahed Published on: 12 Jan, 2024
‘We are not going to stop doing journalism’ - reporters defiant after raids on India’s NewsClick

This week’s raid on the offices and homes of NewsClick employees is the latest in a string of attacks on independent news outlets critical of the Indian government

Saurabh Sharma
Saurabh Sharma Published on: 6 Oct, 2023
The French banlieues and their troubled relationship with the media

Discriminatory media coverage of recent unrest in the suburbs of Paris shows that little has changed since the uprisings of 2005

AN
Ahmed Nazif Published on: 28 Sep, 2023
Why are Zimbabwe’s elections always surrounded by media controversy?

Election season in Zimbabwe has long been shrouded in controversy, with intimidation of opposition activists and journalists, combined with disorganisation at the ballots creating a perfect storm for chaos. This year was no different

Derick M
Derick Matsengarwodzi Published on: 25 Sep, 2023
Analysis: The media’s coverage of the Pakistan cable car incident

It was a roller coaster ride with news organisations all over the world giving minute-by-minute reports on the daring rescue. How does the media create suspense and is this sort of coverage useful?

Anam Hussain
Anam Hussain Published on: 21 Sep, 2023