قضية سعد لمجرد.. عن التغطية الصحفية لقضايا المحاكم

قضية سعد لمجرد.. عن التغطية الصحفية لقضايا المحاكم

 

في القاعة التي شهدت محاكمة الفنان المغربي سعد المجرد بباريس، كان جيش من الصحفيين ينقلون المشهد للرأي العام مدفوعين بشعبيته الجارفة. تثير التغطية الصحفية لهذه القضية والقضايا المشابهة أسئلة مرتبطة باحترام المبادئ الأساسية للمحاكمة العادلة: سرية البحث، وحماية الخصوصية، واحترام قرينة البراءة.

- لا تخلو التغطية الصحفية المفرطة لقضايا المحاكم خاصة قضايا النجوم من مخاطر الإخلال بالمحاكمة العادلة وضرب قرينة البراءة وعدم حماية كل أطراف القضية (ضحايا، متهمون، مبلغون...). تزداد هذه المخاطر أمام ضغط وسائل التواصل الاجتماعي التي عادة ما تؤثر على قناعة المحكمة.

- من واجب الصحافة أن تراقب السلطة القضائية انطلاقا من دورها في ترسيخ الممارسة الديمقراطية وحسن إقامة العدل، لكن التباين بين عمل القضاء والصحافة يطرح معضلات أخلاقية ومهنية ملحة؛ ذلك أن الإجراءات القضائية بطيئة ومعقدة وتنطوي على تفاصيل دقيقة بينما سمة الصحافة السرعة والإثارة.

 

- في هذه النقطة يمكن أن تشكل الصحافة عبئا على سير المحاكمة، وقد تؤثر على قناعة المحكمة، بل وتضرب وتنتهك الحياة الخاصة لأطراف القضية بمبرر الحق في الوصول إلى المعلومة بينما أن التقييم الأخلاقي والمهني يجب أن يقوم على مبدأ المصلحة العامة.

-  بالنسبة للمحكمة الأوروبية لحقوق الإنسان تكتسب حرية الصحافة أهمية كبيرة في مجتمع ديمقراطي؛ إذ يصبح التشكيك في العدالة حرا وحقا ولو حمل "نبرة جدلية أو عدوانية"، لكنها في نفس الوقت أصدرت قرارا في يونيو 2012 تؤكد فيه بوضوح أنه لا يحق للصحفي نشر مقالات تؤثر أو تضغط على استقلالية القضاء.

 

- في بعض الأحيان قد يحدث تضارب بين الشفافية والحق في الإبلاغ وبين تقويض حقوق وحرية المتقاضين، فتتحول الصحافة في الكثير من الأحيان إلى جهة إدانة دون معرفة دقيقة بنظام العدالة. هل يمكن القول إن لمجرد "مغتصب بحكم القانون" بعد صدور الحكم الابتدائي؟

- رغم اختلاف المرجعيات المهنية، فإنها تتفق على قاعدة واحدة وهي أن المسار القضائي لا ينتهي إلا بصدور حكم قطعي ونهائي يستوفي جميع مراحل التقاضي. الاختلاف يكمن فقط فيما إذا كان هذا المسار ينتهي في محكمة الدرجة الثانية (الاستئناف) أم محكمة النقض.

- هذه القاعدة تنبني على مبدأ أساسي يطلق عليه "نسبية الأحكام"، فقد تظهر أدلة جديدة في مرحلة الاستئناف تقلب مسار المحاكمة، وقد يكون تأويل المحلفين خاطئا في المرحلة الابتدائية، لذلك يفضل في مثل هذه الحالات نشر الحكم كما هو دون أن يكون مقرونا بعبارات قاطعة.

- قبل شهور أدانت الصحافة الإنجليزية والفرنسية لاعب مانشستر سيتي بنجامين ميندي قبل أن يقول القضاء كلمته، وصورته كأنه مغتصب وحش بعد تقديم 8 ما يزعم أنهن ضحايا لشكايات إلى القضاء. حاكمته الصحافة وطالبت بسجنه بأقسى العقوبات، ونقلت شهاداتهن وكأنها أدلة قاطعة.

- الغريب أن الصحافة تبنت رواية النيابة العامة، رغم أن القضاة المحلفين وحدهم أصحاب الاختصاص في تكوين قناعة بناء على مرافعات جميع الأطراف المتنازعة. برأت محكمة بريطانية بنجامين من الضحية الأولى، ورأت أنه غير مذنب ثم برأته في ست قضايا أخرى وقد يدان أو يبرأ في باقي مراحل التقاضي.

- العلاقة بين الصحافة والسلطة القضائية معقدة ومتوترة أحيانا لأنها تنطوي على التوفيق بين حقين أساسيين: الحق - في محاكمة عادلة - المرتبط بشرط استقلال القضاء، وحرية التعبير، وعلى غرف الأخبار أن تخضع الحالات لنقاش أخلاقي ومهني يحمي كل الأطراف المتنازعة.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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