Al Jazeera Journalism Review

Outside image
Billboards display Turkish President and People's Alliance's presidential candidate Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, in Istanbul, Türkiye, on Wednesday, April 19, 2023 [Francisco Seco/AP]

The correspondent's job: Ask people, don't tell them

Should foreign correspondents and their media organisations ever take a stand on another country’s political divisions?

 

This week, the prestigious British weekly, The Economist, devoted its front page to the upcoming elections in Türkiye, describing them as the most important of 2023. With this I might agree. But The Economist also included a call to vote and the words: "Erdoğan must go". This strikes me as running counter to journalistic ethics. 

"Light and stenographers" are the basic tenets of democracy, as Spanish Prime Minister Antonio Maura famously said in the early decades of the 20th century. By "stenographers", he meant the employees of Parliament charged with transcribing all speeches delivered by politicians during the sessions, so people would be able to check proposals and promises made by their elected representatives and hold them accountable. The concept is nowadays considered shorthand for a free press, able to transmit accurately what is happening in the political sphere. 

With many countries in the world ruled by not-so-democratic regimes, foreign correspondents often see themselves in the role of the stenographer, with the duty of shining a light on the realm of politics and telling their audience what exactly takes place there. This is true even in a democratic country like Türkiye, where there are many good local journalists who do this job. Despite a low ranking in the world press freedom index published annually by Reporters Without Borders, where Türkiye ranks 165 out of 180 countries, there is still a free press in the country, with outspoken oppositional newspapers not only mushrooming online but also sold at the average newspaper stand in the street. However, their readership is small - 90 percent of the media is in the hands of businesspeople close to the president, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, who is seeking re-election next Sunday, May 14. And it goes without saying that these media outlets repeat everything the president says, without ever doing much fact-checking of the details. 

I am routinely asked for my own opinion when asking citizens for theirs. And I never give a straight answer

 

Unfortunately, the opposition press does not do much fact-checking either and its attempts to counter the Government's discourse are often more emotionally driven than analytical. This is the result of a society so deeply divided today between Erdoğan's supporters and opposition voters that there is barely any space left for rational discussion. Followers of the president will refuse to doubt his words and adversaries will not bother to separate grains of truth and falsehood in a narrative they consider anyhow an all-round imposture. This, of course, makes opposition media a no-more-trustworthy source of news for those who feel caught in the middle or are doubtful. 

In this situation, foreign correspondents are often considered an impartial or at least level-headed arbiter, even by many locals who are no longer sure who to trust. When covering the election campaign - but even long before, because in Türkiye, the last few years have felt like a prolonged election campaign - I am routinely asked for my own opinion when asking citizens for theirs. And I never give a straight answer. Not just because I don't want people to give me the answers they assume I want to hear, but because it goes against our work ethics. As a journalist, and specifically as a foreign one, you are not supposed to influence the situation you are observing and describing.

This is not always easy, because being a long-term correspondent is somewhat different from covering an election as a reporter sent on a one-off mission. Of course, when going to a foreign country to report about elections, everybody will already have chosen his or her side, even if unconsciously, so being impartial or at least keeping the appearance of being it, will always require effort. But on the one hand, journalists on a short mission must be always open to changing their mind as information unfolds, and then, they have not really a stake in what is happening - after the votes are counted and the result announced, there is a flight ticket back home. 

For a long-term correspondent, the situation is different. Perhaps there is no "home" to go to, or at least not without the great effort of a job change. I have lived in Türkiye for more than a decade, as have many other foreign journalists in Istanbul. Theoretically, we are entitled to apply for citizenship, but all the journalists I know have avoided doing it - one of the assets of being a foreign correspondent is precisely being foreign. Of course we have a stake in what is happening in this country, which we love and where we have chosen to live. This is not only emotional, because the victory of one side or the other can make the life of all journalists, both local and foreign, easier or more difficult. But it is emotional, too. Being a journalist does not mean being insensitive and not caring about what is happening around you. It just means you don’t show it while you are working. But you will soon understand that the term "work" covers everything you write or do in public. 

Being a journalist does not mean being insensitive and not caring about what is happening around you. It just means you don’t show it while you are working

 

Back in Spain - my country - I used to go to protest marches as a citizen fulfilling my duty of political participation in a democracy. I have never gone to any in Türkiye. That is, as a protester. I have of course gone to hundreds with the camera in one hand and a notepad in the other. Asking questions, taking pictures and writing news. But never shouting a slogan. This sometimes needs some self-control. I remember the Gezi protests in Istanbul in 2013, when tens of thousands of citizens, mostly young people, men and women, flocked to Taksim square, turning a small environmentalist sit-in in a huge rally that can probably only be compared to the 1968 student rebellion in Paris. Or so it felt for many of us who had not been born at that time but kept a cultural memory of "Paris 68" as a turning point in European politics and youth movements. In any case, it seemed to be a historical moment for Türkiye, too, and to witness it was a privilege. 

But witnessing is the word: we, as journalists, are not part of the protest. We choose not to be. We carry no flags or banners. We shut our mouths when others are speaking. It is a matter of principle: either you cover a protest for news or you take part, but you can’t do both things at the same time. And you soon discover that you cannot do it at other times either, because once you are a foreign correspondent, you cannot leave that aspect of your life to one side for an hour or a day.  

As journalists, we are often proud of being on call 24 hours a day - and not only literally, ready to pick up the phone at any time, but also metaphorically: every person we meet might be a future source for doing news, every conversation we have, be it during shopping or dancing in a bar, will add something to our knowledge of the country and shape the background of what we write. You never really disconnect because observing reality is your job. And we have to realise that reality does observe us, too. Whatever we do will be done in our quality as foreign journalists. And our job is to tell how the country is doing, not to tell the country what it should do.

That is the same attitude I try to keep up during this election campaign, probably the most polarised ever seen in a country which started being polarised 10 years ago, precisely after the Gezi protests had been quelled. Of course I know which party I would like to see win. But I will not tell you. I'll tell you what people think, on one side of the political spectrum and on the other, and I'll give you the facts of how the country is doing right now, but I'll stop there. Therefore, I think The Economist made a mistake on its frontpage. I know that UK and American newspapers have a tradition of officially endorsing one candidate in the elections, and that might be fair, because most papers have their specific ideological outlook and it is okay to express it openly. But when it comes to the democratic exercise of a foreign country, telling its citizens for whom they should vote is not okay. Not only because an impartial analysis in the foreign press is valued precisely for being impartial, but also because it shows a lack of respect for Turkish voters: do they really need a British news organisation to tell them what to do with their country?

Ilya U Topper is a Spanish journalist based in Istanbul

 

The views expressed in this article are the author’s own and do not necessarily reflect Al Jazeera Journalism Review’s editorial stance

 

More Articles

How AI Synthesised Media Shapes Voter Perception: India's Case in Point

The recent Indian elections witnessed the unprecedented use of generative AI, leading to a surge in misinformation and deepfakes. Political parties leveraged AI to create digital avatars of deceased leaders, Bollywood actors

Suvrat Arora
Suvrat Arora Published on: 12 Jun, 2024
The Rise of Podcasting: How Digital Audio Is Revolutionising Journalism

In this age of digital transformation and media convergence, podcasts stand out as a testament to the enduring power of journalism—a medium that transcends borders, sparks conversations, and brings the world closer together.

Anam Hussain
Anam Hussain Published on: 6 Jun, 2024
Under Fire: The Perilous Reality for Journalists in Gaza's War Zone

Journalists lack safety equipment and legal protection, highlighting the challenges faced by journalists in Gaza. While Israel denies responsibility for targeting journalists, the lack of international intervention leaves journalists in Gaza exposed to daily danger.

Linda Shalash
Linda Shalash Published on: 9 May, 2024
Your Words Are Your Weapon — You Are a Soldier in a Propaganda War

Narrative warfare and the role of journalists in it is immense; the context of the conflict, the battleground has shifted to the realm of narratives, where journalists play a decisive role in shaping the narrative.

Ilya
Ilya U Topper Published on: 21 Apr, 2024
The Privilege and Burden of Conflict Reporting in Nigeria: Navigating the Emotional Toll

The internal struggle and moral dilemmas faced by a conflict reporter, as they grapple with the overwhelming nature of the tragedies they witness and the sense of helplessness in the face of such immense suffering. It ultimately underscores the vital role of conflict journalism in preserving historical memory and giving a voice to the voiceless.

Hauwa Shaffii Nuhu
Hauwa Shaffii Nuhu Published on: 17 Apr, 2024
Journalism in chains in Cameroon

Investigative journalists in Cameroon sometimes use treacherous means to navigate the numerous challenges that hamper the practice of their profession: the absence of the Freedom of Information Act, the criminalisation of press offenses, and the scare of the overly-broad anti-terrorism law.

Nalova Akua
Nalova Akua Published on: 12 Apr, 2024
The Perils of Journalism and the Rise of Citizen Media in Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia's media landscape is grim, with low rankings for internet and press freedom across the region. While citizen journalism has risen to fill the gaps, journalists - both professional and citizen - face significant risks due to government crackdowns and the collusion between tech companies and authorities to enable censorship and surveillance.

AJR Contributor Published on: 6 Apr, 2024
Orientalism, Imperialism and The Western Coverage of Palestine

Western mainstream media biases and defence of the Israeli narrative are connected to orientalism, racism, and imperialism, serving the interests of Western ruling political and economic elites. However, it is being challenged by global movements aiming to shed light on the realities of the conflict and express solidarity with the Palestinian population.

Joseph Daher
Joseph Daher Published on: 1 Apr, 2024
Ethical Dilemmas of Photo Editing in Media: Lessons from Kate Middleton’s Photo Controversy

Photoshop—an intelligent digital tool celebrated for enhancing the visual appearance of photographs—is a double-edged sword. While it has the power to transform and refine images, it also skillfully blurs the line between reality and fiction, challenging the legitimacy of journalistic integrity and the credibility of news media.

Anam Hussain
Anam Hussain Published on: 26 Mar, 2024
Breaking Barriers: The Rise of Citizen Journalists in India's Fight for Media Inclusion

Grassroots journalists from marginalized communities in India, including Dalits and Muslims, are challenging mainstream media narratives and bringing attention to underreported issues through digital outlets like The Mooknayak.

Hanan Zaffa
Hanan Zaffar, Jyoti Thakur Published on: 3 Mar, 2024
Silenced Voices and Digital Resilience: The Case of Quds Network

Unrecognized journalists in conflict zones face serious risks to their safety and lack of support. The Quds Network, a Palestinian media outlet, has been targeted and censored, but they continue to report on the ground in Gaza. Recognition and support for independent journalists are crucial.

Yousef Abu Watfe يوسف أبو وطفة
Yousef Abu Watfeh Published on: 21 Feb, 2024
Artificial Intelligence's Potentials and Challenges in the African Media Landscape

How has the proliferation of Artificial Intelligence impacted newsroom operations, job security and regulation in the African media landscape? And how are journalists in Africa adapting to these changes?

Derick M
Derick Matsengarwodzi Published on: 18 Feb, 2024
Media Monopoly in Brazil: How Dominant Media Houses Control the Narrative and Stifle Criticism of Israel

An in-depth analysis exploring the concentration of media ownership in Brazil by large companies, and how this shapes public and political narratives, particularly by suppressing criticism of Israel.

Al Jazeera Logo
Rita Freire & Ahmad Al Zobi Published on: 1 Feb, 2024
The Perils of Unverified News: A Case of Nonexistent Flotillas

Can you hide one thousand ships in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea? I would say not. But some of my fellow journalists seem to believe in magic.  

Ilya
Ilya U Topper Published on: 16 Jan, 2024
In the Courtroom and Beyond: Covering South Africa's Historic Legal Case Against Israel at The Hague

As South Africa takes on Israel at the International Court of Justice, the role of journalists in covering this landmark case becomes more crucial than ever. Their insights and reporting bring the complexities of international law to a global audience.

Hala Ahed
Hala Ahed Published on: 12 Jan, 2024
Did the NYTimes Manipulate the Sexual Violence Allegations of October 7?

An in-depth examination of the New York Times's investigation of alleged sexual assaults by Hamas during the Israeli war on Gaza, highlighting ethical concerns, and the impact of its reporting on the victims' families. It questions the journalistic integrity of the Times, especially in the context of Western media's portrayal of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

A picture of the Al Jazeera Media Institute's logo, on a white background.
Al Jazeera Journalism Review Published on: 7 Jan, 2024
Is The New York Times Reproducing Allegations of 'Sexual Violence' to Downplay Israeli Crimes?

The New York Times' report on alleged sexual violence by Palestinian militants raises profound concerns about discrepancies in key testimonies and a biased reporting that aligns with Israeli narratives and downplays Israeli crimes in Gaza.

Mohammad Zeidan
Mohammad Zeidan Published on: 31 Dec, 2023
Embedded journalism: Striking a balance between access and impartiality in war zones

The ethical implications of embedded journalism, particularly in the Israeli invasion of Gaza, raise concerns about the compromise of balance and independence in war coverage.

Abeer Ayyoub
Abeer Ayyoub Published on: 19 Dec, 2023
Through a Mexican lens: Navigating the intricacies of reporting in Palestine

A Mexican journalist's journey through the complexities of reporting on Palestine and gives tips on how to manage this kind of coverage.

Témoris Grecko
Témoris Grecko Published on: 10 Dec, 2023
Echos of Israeli Discourse in Latin American Media on Gaza

Heavily influenced by US and Israeli diplomatic efforts, Latin American media predominantly aligns with and amplifies the Israeli perspective. This divergence between political actions and media representation highlights the complex dynamics shaping Latin American coverage of the Gaza conflict.

Rita Freire Published on: 23 Nov, 2023
Critique of German media's handling of Gaza Conflict

The German media's coverage of the Gaza conflict has been criticized for being biased, presenting a distorted view of the conflict, focusing only on the Israeli perspective, and downplaying the suffering of Palestinians. This biased reporting undermines the media's role as an objective source of information and fails to provide a balanced view of the conflict.

AJR Contributor Published on: 16 Nov, 2023
Colonial legacy of surveillance: hidden world of surveillance technology in the African continent

African nations’ expenditure on surveillance technology from China, Europe and the US is a direct threat to the media, democracy and freedom of speech, and an enduring legacy of colonial surveillance practices.

Derick M
Derick Matsengarwodzi Published on: 14 Nov, 2023
How the New York Times fuelled a crackdown on journalists in India

Vague reporting and a piece ‘laden with innuendo’ by the New York Times gave Indian authorities the excuse they needed to crack down on news website Newsclick

Meer Faisal
Meer Faisal Published on: 31 Oct, 2023